European Exploration 1. I can identify the causes and consequences of European exploration and colonization. 2. I can explain the technological (e.g., invention of the astrolabe and improved maps), and political developments, (e.g., rise of nation-states), that made sea exploration possible. 3. I can use case studies of individual explorers and stories of life in Europe to compare the goals, obstacles, motivations, and consequences for European exploration and colonization of the Americas (e.g., economic, political, cultural, and religious).